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Space Debris

Just 40% of the total satellites that orbit the Earth are active, whilst the remaining 60% amount to useless metal shooting around the planet at speeds of 28,000kph, ten times faster than the speed of a bullet. However, inactive satellites are just a small fraction of the problem. Russia recently destroyed one of its ownContinue reading “Space Debris”

Excitons

Condensed matter describes the state in which a large number of particles assemble to form a macroscopic system. Complex interactions can arise from collective phenomena within such an ensemble. In a crystalline solid, energy and momentum are transferred via exotic processes that can be accurately modelled as the propagation of subatomic particles with altered properties.Continue reading “Excitons”

The Physics of Ice Ages

1.5 million years ago, the Earth experienced its most recent ice age, namely the Pleistocene glaciation. An ‘Ice age’ is a period, which can be as long as hundreds of millions of years, during which the global temperature is abnormally low. How cold exactly? Imagine the Chicago skyline under almost 3km of ice; that’s whatContinue reading “The Physics of Ice Ages”

The Josephson Effect

Superconducting devices are becoming a central component in a variety of new technologies. Selected for their remarkable electronic and magnetic properties, the development of materials that enter the superconducting state at reasonable temperatures has increased their practicality. In this article, we discuss the Josephson effect and investigate its applications to modern-day physics and engineering. SuperconductivityContinue reading “The Josephson Effect”

Models of Nuclear Physics

The atomic nucleus is one of the most fascinating objects in the universe. Groups of protons and neutrons, themselves composed of quarks, bind together as a result of the strong nuclear force that, at distances of around 1fm = 1×10-15m, is potent enough to overcome proton-proton electromagnetic repulsion. The continuous tug of war between theseContinue reading “Models of Nuclear Physics”

PET Scan: An Overview

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a painless, non-invasive medical imaging technique, widely used for detection cancer, heart disease and brain disorders such as dementia. This process involves detection of metabolism within bodily tissue, enabling construction of 3-dimensional images which show how organs and tissue in the body function, rather than producing an image that solelyContinue reading “PET Scan: An Overview”

The End of Moore’s Law

In 1965, Gordon E. Moore, the co-founder of Intel, observed that every two years the amount of transistors that could fit on a single microchip was doubling, whilst the cost of computers was halving. Moore’s Law, a projection of this historic trend, has been used since 1975 for forecasting and goal-setting in the semiconductor industry.Continue reading “The End of Moore’s Law”

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