The Josephson Effect

Superconducting devices are becoming a central component in a variety of new technologies. Selected for their remarkable electronic and magnetic properties, the development of materials that enter the superconducting state at reasonable temperatures has increased their practicality. In this article, we discuss the Josephson effect and investigate its applications to modern-day physics and engineering. SuperconductivityContinue reading “The Josephson Effect”

Scattering: Unmasking Nature

Understanding the composition and structure of matter is perhaps the most ubiquitous objective across the physical sciences. The fundamental structures found within matter are typically on the nanometre scale and have thus proved unobservable for most of history. Following a number of developments during the 20th century, we are now capable of probing nature toContinue reading “Scattering: Unmasking Nature”

Semiconductors: Controlling Current Flow

The conductivity of materials is a spectrum; on one end lies conductors, materials that readily allow the flow of electrical current, and at the other lie insulators, which block current flow. Between these extremes lie semiconductors that only conduct under certain conditions, making them perfect for controlling electric current. Pure Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge)Continue reading “Semiconductors: Controlling Current Flow”

Superconductivity: Breaking the Resistance

Electronic devices utilise the energy stored in electric currents as they flow through a series of wires, or circuit. Electrons are obstructed due to collisions with vibrating metal ions within the wire, resulting in energy losses and giving rise to the phenomenon of resistance. Wires at higher temperatures contain ions that vibrate more violently andContinue reading “Superconductivity: Breaking the Resistance”