The Mystery of Neutrino Mass

The standard model of particle physics is, perhaps ironically, written in the language of quantum field theory. Particles manifest as a consequence of the oscillatory motion of the associated fields. All known fermions, particles with half-integral spin such as the electron and the quarks, are massive particles. Fermion mass is a direct consequence of theContinue reading “The Mystery of Neutrino Mass”

The Josephson Effect

Superconducting devices are becoming a central component in a variety of new technologies. Selected for their remarkable electronic and magnetic properties, the development of materials that enter the superconducting state at reasonable temperatures has increased their practicality. In this article, we discuss the Josephson effect and investigate its applications to modern-day physics and engineering. SuperconductivityContinue reading “The Josephson Effect”

Models of Nuclear Physics

The atomic nucleus is one of the most fascinating objects in the universe. Groups of protons and neutrons, themselves composed of quarks, bind together as a result of the strong nuclear force that, at distances of around 1fm = 1×10-15m, is potent enough to overcome proton-proton electromagnetic repulsion. The continuous tug of war between theseContinue reading “Models of Nuclear Physics”

The End of Moore’s Law

In 1965, Gordon E. Moore, the co-founder of Intel, observed that every two years the amount of transistors that could fit on a single microchip was doubling, whilst the cost of computers was halving. Moore’s Law, a projection of this historic trend, has been used since 1975 for forecasting and goal-setting in the semiconductor industry.Continue reading “The End of Moore’s Law”

Approximating the Universe: Perturbation Theory

The theory of quantum mechanics is humanity’s most honourable attempt at describing the nature of the most fundamental building blocks of the Universe. Providing a quantitative understanding of subatomic particles and their interactions, the theory has stood up to one hundred years of experiments testing its validity with only minor deviation from observations. The agreementContinue reading “Approximating the Universe: Perturbation Theory”

Scattering: Unmasking Nature

Understanding the composition and structure of matter is perhaps the most ubiquitous objective across the physical sciences. The fundamental structures found within matter are typically on the nanometre scale and have thus proved unobservable for most of history. Following a number of developments during the 20th century, we are now capable of probing nature toContinue reading “Scattering: Unmasking Nature”